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Guest Editor

Chris Harding

Chemical Engineer/Biological Scientist

About

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets better soon! Next, I have two BS degrees: Chemical Engineering and Biological Sciences, and I am medically retired. With that said, I am trying to relearn statistics and would like an opportunity to volunteer on some simple projects that require data Excel entry and Z, t-test, F-test, Mann-Whitney, etc analysis. If you suggest a test, I will try to learn it and apply it. It my provide a door prior to hiring a statistician. Although my greatest strengths are integrity, honesty, and overall ethics, I enjoy learning about new topics and meeting people from other parts of the world as well.

Recent Posts
Recent comments

Dialogue on female genital mutilation/cutting

Hello,

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets better soon!

I have enjoyed your intellectual thought process, information, means of conveyance, and subject matter!

Children on city streets vulnerable to abuse and exploitation

Hello,

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets better soon!

As an American, I am saddened by such situations. Wealth should be and can be distributed more effectively.

Spoken word for maternal health

Sean B.

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets better soon!

Next, I appreciate your talent and wish I had your ability!

Have a nice day!

In the gender digital divide, women fall behind

Hello,

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets beer soon!

Next, I am not terribly surprised about the digital divide. Sadly, women have been "working the fields" for many generations while the men are required to "meet" in the town square. According to one written report from Sub-Saharan, Africa, the women state the men often meet at the market and play "cards" (1). Personally, I wonder if this is a consequence of watching the "white man" do business since most "foreign travelers" will act similarly while engaging in business.

Sadly, the men in these areas often make the final decision regarding agricultural "sales".

Before women can begin utilizing the "digital" technology, they must be elevated in society, educated, and allowed to marry at a later date.

1. Adnan A Hyder, Suzanne Maman, Joyce E Nyoni, Shaniysa A Khasiani, Noreen Teoh, Zul Premji, and Salim Sohani, Director. The pervasive triad of food security, gender, inequity and women's health: Exploratory research from sub-Saharan Africa. African Health Sciences [online]. 2005. Vol. 5(4). pp. 328-334. Available from: Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1831953/?tool=pmcentrez]. Search Entrez [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/gquery]. PMCID: PMC1831953

Is sex education a public concern?

Hello,

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets better soon!

Next, I would like to mention the following about sex education. Although I attended high school many years ago, I took an HIV and Sexual Transmission class in college. At the beginning of the course, the boys from fraternities and girls from sororities, as well as other boys and girls, were consistently flirting. As the term progressed, the females began leaving in a hurry and both groups quit their "flirting". In my opinion, the pictures were a powerful means of delivering a message.

Although children often have difficulty "discussing" sexuality with mother's and father's, I believe the discussion is imperative for the safety of our children. Maybe the parents should take a college course or visit a free course provided by the health department.

The course could also be taught on-line.

Real friends don't give friends abortions

Hello,

Originally, I had created a response to Sarah and posted my comment approximately one week ago. I then found some additional data and "appended" my original post. Recently, I discovered some more information about transmission of HIV. Therefore, I decided to create one response with all the information combined. Hopefully, the other posts are deleted, I don't offend the Editor or Sarah, and I don't lose my wonderful account since I have created so many posts!

When I first read Sarah's article, I was concerned with the "Blinky" comment because the eye is often a mode of transmission for viruses. Although, I would prefer a "worse-case" scenario and had theorized a "Blinky" could cause HIV infection, I wanted accurate, evidence-based information. In the future, for safety, I will go with my theory, which is based off two degrees: BS Chemical Engineering and BS Biological Sciences, and perform a preliminary search to verify such theory. If I don't initially discover an answer, I will create a task to search for data, evidence, to verify or deny my theory.

In addition, a "theory" may spark a conversation from peers regarding feasibility. In turn, the conversation may lead to an accurate answer based off scientific evidence. In this case, I discovered the evidence on my own-please see below. As you can tell, I feel a bit guilty that I didn't mention the possibility of HIV infection, even though I had thought of it, in my initial post.

A little joking can be good!

Isn't it interesting how people have difficulty discussing sexual activity. Obviously, there are some places where a discussion probably should not occur, but I believe children, teenagers, and adults should have honest discussions with each other. Also, parents should know the "current" terminology being used by teenagers.

"A Blinky"

A "Blinky" can be a mode of HIV transmission!

From your excellent article:

"I also learnt many new things. Had a blinkie lately? A blinkie is when a man ejaculates in your eye. This is not some new kinky sexual act. It is ‘because you can’t get pregnant or HIV this way’ along with the added benefit of ‘ you keep your virginity."

From the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: (2)

"In addition to common eye injuries, health care workers, laboratory staff, janitorial workers, animal handlers, and other workers may be at risk of acquiring infectious diseases via ocular exposure. Infectious diseases can be transmitted through the mucous membranes of the eye as a result of direct exposure (e.g., blood splashes, respiratory droplets generated during coughing or suctioning) or from touching the eyes with contaminated fingers or other objects. The infections may result in relatively minor conjunctivitis or reddening/soreness of the eye or in a life threatening disease such as HIV, B virus, or possibly even avian influenza."(2)

The Condom, who is responsible, and why should it be discussed?

Often, the male doesn't want to use a "condom", but females may dislike it as well. In truth, most males are probably concerned about the "lack of" sensitivity, which can interfere with intercourse, and cause an appearance of impotence. Also, women have a tendency to react negatively to "soft erections" as well. Many women will assume their attraction caused the effect, which is wrong. Both of these situations can lead to no condom use between partners. By the way, the later is common in all societies.

If you don't mind, I would like to tell all women the following: A man will not be engaging if he is not attracted to you!

The Parents

As we know, many teens are afraid to speak with their parents about sex. Why? Because most parents believe their daughters are "Miss Perfect", while considering their sons as "studs". Of course, "Studs" from other families are chasing after their "Miss Perfect".

In these cases, the father will rarely speak to his son about a soft erection! "Are you kidding me? I have never had a soft erection; the condom was too small!" Anyhow, there is nothing wrong with this type of joking, and father's should be able to have these discussions. Mothers should be able to joke as well. After all, the ability to "joke" during a marital argument, which is usually over difficult to discuss topics, is a wonderful ability that reduces tension (4). Often, joking is so easy, but why can't the topics of HIV and other Sexually transmitted disease, "STD"s, be discussed? Because our society associates STDs with promiscuous activity, "slut", and "well he's a male slut! :)".

Although abstinence is considered the best policy by some, others argue that premarital sex enhances marital relationships since each partner is "experienced" and satisfied with previous "experimentation". From my experience, I believe it's likely that most adolescents will experiment with sex, and, as your article suggests, be a wordsmith with respect to sexual definitions. As long as each takes care of their body, and are not afraid to speak with a father, mother, doctor, nurse, or friend during times of need, most adolescents will probably navigate their sexual curiosity safely.

Rut-roe (3), What happened?⇐ I dare you to click! (5)

Although it can be funny and we should "joke" since that facilitates a discussion, it is, as your posts suggests, serious as well; here are some statistics on adolescent sex, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted disease in the United States:

• In the United States, adolescent sexual activity accounts for the highest age-specific proportion of unintended pregnancies, with higher rates among African Americans and Latinas than among white women;

• Almost half of the estimated 18.9 million STIs reported in the United States during the year of 2000 affected adolescents and young adults;

• Rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia among African Americans and Latino youths are 2 to 7 times higher than whites;

• The United States ranks highest among developed countries for sexual health risks;

• Children who had sex at an earlier age had a negative attitude towards condoms than "women" who were older;

• History of nonconsensual sexual experiences was independently associated with poorer sexual health outcomes;

• According to the article, both early and late initiators are more likely to experience problems with sexual functioning than those who initiate sexual activity at a normative age.(1)

§1. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Injury Center Connection. Interactive, Online Course Designed to Help Educators Understand Teen Dating Violence Prevention. CDC National Center for Injury Prevention and Control [online].2010. vol.3(1), pp.1. Available from: CDC National Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Injury Center Connection: Volume 3, Spring 2010.

§2. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.CDC[online]. 2010. Available from: NIOSH: Eye Safety.

§3. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.CDC[online]. 2010. Available from: CDC, STD(s).

§4. Gottman, John, Ph.D,; Silver, Nan. The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work, A Practical Guide from the Country's Foremost Relationship Expert. Three Rivers Press, New York. 2000. pp. 288. Available from: The Gottman Institute, Relationships and Parenting Products: Couples. Google Books: The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work, Volume 1999, Part 2. ISBN-13: 9780609805794.

§5. Collegehumor.YouTube.Reindeer STD.CollegeHumor.com[online].Time: 2:30. Available from: YouTube: collegehumor.

Why are women in developing nations hit hardest by climate change?

Hello,

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets better soon!

Next, I'm curious if you have heard of "Step Wells". Also, what type of water wells are traditionally created in Africa?

In India, they create a type of well that is specifically designed to collect and funnel surface water to a specific location.

I believe it is different than the "step well" and remember reading a story about an Indian who returned to teach villagers the lost art of well development because people were severely affected by drought.

Increasing trend of U.S. mothers dying during pregnancy

Hello,

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets better soon!

Next, I was surprised by the statistic as well. We often believe the US leads the world in health and science but that is not true. In fact, Asia is beginning to lead the way.

In addition, teenage pregnancies have increased and our "quality of life" is not really that "great" when we considering our "wealth". Wealth does not equal happiness!

1. Luthar Suniya S.; Latendresse Shawn J. Children of the Affluent, Challenges to Well-Being. Curr Dir Psychol Sci [online]. 2005. vol.14(1). pp. 49-53. Available from: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1948879/?tool=pmcentrez]

World’s Progress on Maternal Health is Insufficient

Hello,

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope it gets better soon!

Next, I agree that maternal health is an important part of "lifting" a population out of poverty, but I believe a more important task is the empowerment of children in general.

From what I have learned, "child marriage" is still a major problem in the World, and the United States is included in the latter category as well. As a "World population" we need to realize children are children, allow them to learn, be creative, and play. Also, we need to allow them an opportunity to learn from their own mistakes. As I began reading on "child marriage", which was sparked PlanUSA, I discovered the problems associated with children worldwide. Sadly, many children are removed from education because the parents fear "rape" by teachers, parents lack sufficient funds to support families, and many feel the female children should marry at an early age because, in some parts of the World where agriculture is important, the child marriage allows parents a means to make "cash". If the child's labor makes the family money, the family can demand a monetary gain for the marriage.

While reading, I discovered a discussion of "Ahearn's" ethnographic study of a Napalese village. In the discussion, literacy was described as a major driving force to empower a population. Interestingly, the literacy also created a development of early "love letters" amongst children and led to self arranged marriages instead of prearranged marriages. In turn, marriages lasted longer, age of birth was prolonged, and quality of life increased.

I realize the situation is quite complex and "corruption" often destroy the possibilities of most children. Sadly, it is usually the honest that does all the work, is beaten by the system, and end up starving while the rich take continuous advantage. On the other hand, there are "poor" who are criminals as well and once a chance of "richness" is provided, they will quickly take advantage of others.

In essence, money is the root of most evil acts in my opinion, and monetary gain can be disguised by "network laundering" as well. A person can engage in evil for a position in society or workplace.

With the latter said, I do not believe the dowery process is "evil". Rather, I believe it is a means of survival. I just hope more children can begin the creative process of writing love letters.


Love Letters - An Animated Proposal - v2.0:



A contrasting comparison: An interesting video of bride-price by IRCW:

The Bride Price, Consequences of Child Marriage Worldwide:

• The Bride-price: Consequences of Child Marriage, IRCW.


Women, Marriage, Reconstructed Hymen, Love Letters, and Child Marriage

Do you want to know your HIV status?

• Do you want to know your HIV Status?

As an educated male, I believe my knowledge and understanding of HIV is quite important, which includes a regular test when engaging in sexual activity.

• If not, would you like to know your HIV status?

I know my status.

• What do you think are the three most important reasons why most young women and men do not know there HIV status in your country?

Interestingly, many women in these cultures and ethnicities are "dissatisfied" with the performance of their lover, which indicates an inability to communicate with each other about heterosexual relationships. In other words, some cultures and ethnicities have difficulty communicating about sexual topics that many would consider "normal" and write about if they became more liberal.

On many occasions, many of the same dissatisfied women will seek sex with another, and, if they are married, engage in an adulterous affair. The same can be said for the men as well. For many, the latter interaction is considered "risky" and increases the "satisfaction" of the sexual encounter. Some of these encounters may be with the same sex. As we know, the "statistics" of women reporting "experimentation" with women is quite high. Many have suggested high statistics for men as well.

As we become older, we, at times, desire a return to our younger days. Some may reminisce about their days of experimentation as well and decide to "experiment" one more time. On the other hand, some may continue a sexual relationship with a "friend" who has outside sexual relationships and introduces risks. In every case, a lack of honest discussion, ignorance, and a desire for satisfaction usually leads to chance encounters and increased risks.

The men and women in our society usually follow instead of leading. As such, most are afraid to discuss difficult topics, and HIV is one such topic.

Like many situations, they believe a lack of discussion allows one to remain appropriately ignorant without placing fault.

• What is the one thing that should be done in your country to encourage young people to get tested for HIV?

Mothers and fathers with a willingness to discuss sexual activity, and children who have a balance of intellectual and sexual curiosity, which I believe describes most children. Usually, the "environmental" factors trump the genetic factors in these cases.

A side note:

As a male who has only had sex with women but has considered sexual relations with men and has homosexual tendencies, I would like to provide the following journal article. I believe it adequately describes the "dangers" of risky and "on the down low" sexual behavior that happens more often than people want to admit. Why? Because most "men" are "studs"!!! In truth, most men and women associate "sports" with "studs", and the article clearly indicates that the dominant male figure in sports also engages in "on the down low" activity!

1. Sandfort, Theo G.M; Dodge, Brian. ...And Then There was the Down Low": Introduction to Black and Latino Male Bisexualities. Arch Sex Behav[online].2008.vol.37(5), pp.675-682. Available from: Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine. Search Entrez.

3 art videos that make you think

Very nice work!

Harm Reduction - It saves lives!

My response to: Harm Reduction-It saves lives! by Kishalaya (dodo) Namaram.

"Harm Reduction saves lives, though it has been misunderstood by a majority of people and some governments are even against it."

Although I had an idea about the concept and appreciate any method that reduces death rates, I didn't know an organization regarding "harm reduction" exists. Therefore, I thank you for bringing this to my attention! If you don't mind, I have a question about the definition you provide. In addition, I would like to add some personal insight into the reason "Governments" may be weary of "Harm Reduction" techniques.

• Is the International Harm Reduction Association, "ihra", definition meant to be the most general?

I ask this because I performed a literature research on Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine, and found an article related to Harm Reduction and the tobacco industry. In that article, the definition is similar but one that is more general and based on Article 12 of the International Covenant of Economic and Cultural Rights.": A "Right to health based on autonomy-engancing right". I provide the article below and believe you will enjoy it! :)

As a chemical engineer, who has pharmaceutical validation experience, earned three Vice-President's Awards, had a personal visit by a CEO, optimized my area of the process, and had the head of technical operations ask me to accompany him to evaluate another process, I value the importance of data, defined variables, verification, validated methods, and manufacturing of product according to Quality System Regulations. In truth pharmaceutical validation is very similar to Six Sigma. In addition, I have been certified in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point for seafood processing. All of these methods are similar to Harm Reduction.

Sadly, I witnessed illegal activity as well, and reported it to the Food and Drug Administration. By the way, data is important and consumers should know what information is available. For this reason, I would like to provide the following US Food and Drug Administration links. It is kind of a passion of mine since I witnessed illegal activity and know that, in some cases, lives could be at stake:


US Food and Drug Administration: For Consumers, which has a link to reporting problems as well.

US FDA, Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations: Warning Letters.


Although the pharmaceutical industry is a heavily regulated, and there are many who abide by regulations and laws, there are people who break these laws for financial gain. I'm sure most "logical" people understand the reasoning behind laws and regulations and manufacture product accordingly, but there are deaths, or "adverse reactions", that may be caused by improper manufacturing. Therefore, consumers and health professionals should report any problems with US FDA regulated products. In these cases, the more data we report the more return on the science. In fact, the US Food and Drug Administration is developing the Sentinel Initiative, which will hopefully become an in-situ data gathering process.


You mention that some Governments are weary about Harm Reduction methods. According to the below document, some governments, United States included, have been "bitten" by Corporations who did not share important data related to health outcomes. Specifically, the document provides the following example:

• When using a "smoking machine", the smokers made use of "compensatory smoking behavior" (inhaled more deeply, smoking more cigarettes, covering the filter) to counterbalance any mitigating effects of the filter and thereby ingest an even greater amount of nicotine and its attendant carcinogens. The tobacco companies took advantage of the "filter" and "increased" inhaling to produce "light cigarettes" knowing that the Government's machine didn't properly measure the relationship between the nicotine and carcinogens, filter, and increased pressure-drop from increased inhaling by the consumer. Therefore, people were actually increasing their nicotine intake, which increased the probability of addiction. In turn, future cancer rates were affected as well.

As I previously mentioned, I, as a chemical engineer, have witnessed some very illegal and dangerous activity while working in the pharmaceutical industry. As you know, many Governments have experienced the horrific side of corporations as well, and corporations love to take advantage of "harm reduction" techniques.

"Countries can improve health without falling prey to corporate malfeasance, so long as governments create evidence-based mechanisms to study these products and survey those who use them.Yet these countries should not have to face such difficult scientific, psychological, and human rights issues alone, allowing transnational tobacco corporations to more easily “divide and conquer” in manipulating individual national policies. Through a process termed “leap-frogging,” scientific research and policy dissemination can allow “the adoption of measures in a forerunner state to serve as models elsewhere.”

As a final point, I know that corporations also engage in wonderful humanitarian activity as well. As with any population of people, there are evil people included with the population. The only way to put an end to their activity is through discussion, which is an activity they can't stand. Actually, I took the Reid technique of Interviewing and Interrogation as well, and, during this training, I learned that"psychopaths" hate factual analysis.

Once again, I would like to thank you for introducing "ihra" to me! I wish you all well!

1. Shelley, Donna, MD, MPH; Meier, Benjamin Mason, JD, LLM. The Fourth Pillar of the Framework Convention on tobacco Control: Harm Reduction and International Human Right to Health. Public Health Rep.[online].2006. vol.121(5), pp. 494-500. Available from: Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine. Search Entrez. PMCID: 1564445.

My response to: Harm Reduction-It saves lives! by Kishalaya (dodo) Namaram.

In addition to my Conversations for a Better World Blog, Chris Harding, I have a Gather Network as well: QuidnuncSimcha

Laboring in poverty: A global problem caught on film

Hello,

I just wanted to say this was an amazing video! I used it in my Gather Network post of "Child Marriage":

Draft: PlanUSA request and some Information on the effects of Child Marriage.

Have a nice day!

What Facebook has to do with poverty

Comment on: Conversations for a Better World: What Facebook has to do with poverty by Ms. Ida Jeng.

Hello,

First, I appreciate your enthusiasm!

Next, I also believe the Internet can be quite useful with sharing all information, which includes engineering, scientific, medical, humanitarian, and other. Because of this sharing, I believe people in other cultures, who have little access to the outside world, which is most "poor" people, will begin their own discussions. In turn, the "poor", who have an opportunity to gain access to a computer, will affect the poorest people in their society by educating mothers, fathers, grandmothers, grandfathers, and friends on their experiences. Although beneficial, I worry about the "quality" of shared data.

There are so many wonderful commercial, educational, organizational, and government sites, but the information can be quite daunting! What I believe we, the citizens of the developed World, are facing is a problem with accurate information.

In many situations, the data, "information", has not been verified by peers, and this will become extremely important in the future! Opinions are great, but opinions can cause problems as well. Although more than an "opinion", I provide the media and their use of a published "journal article" as an example.

As many have seen on the news, there is often major "sways" in beliefs regarding health, which are caused by recent research results. When the media "gets ahold" of these "individual articles", they, like many others, become excited and report the information. This or that is GOOD! Chocolate is good for you!! Later, they discover that a food or vitamin may not be so good and can cause cancer or another medical aliment. Why? Science works off the "shoulders of giants" and requires many people to perform research, investigate claims, reproduce data, and question another's data and methods. In some cases, the person's goals are questioned as well. It is not that the information is necessarily bad, it was just a "block" of information that was needed to increase scientific accuracy. As another example, I provide social and psychological sciences.

As I began researching "Child Marriage", coerced sexual assault, rape, suicide, etc. I noticed the Confidence Intervals of some sociology and psychology data was very large. As a chemical engineer, who has worked in an industry that requires very tight process controls, I was somewhat surprised until I thought about the possibilities. When studying human beings, the "system" is quite complex, the ethical considerations are very significant, the "numbers" are small, and the data is affected.

In my opinion, the Internet provides good and bad "blocks" of information. Why? Because scientific journal articles are reviewed prior to submission, and there is a filtering process. Sadly, this filtering process can affect some credible journals, and some bad science does make it through the system, but that is another topic. On the other hand, much of the Internet's information has not been peer reviewed, and this may negatively affect the life of another. In the worse-case scenario, it can cause the death of an individual, or the "Clash of the Civilizations", which was described by Samuel P. Huntington. Although Dr. Huntington didn't consider the internet during his original discussion, I'm sure he probably considers it as a possible mode in the future.
Some Information on "The Clash of Civilizations?":
• Foreign Affairs: Summary;
• "Is There a Clash of Civilizations? Islam, Democracy, and US-Middle East and Central Asia Policy, 2006 "White House Foreign Affairs, §.
§Quote:"This is important because the recruitment of terrorists today tends to use appeals to individual responsibility for upholding Islam, and is ideally suited for the internet age where individuals not living in a Muslim land—perhaps sitting alone in their apartment in Hamburg or Rotterdam or Falls Church looking for meaning in their lives on the internet—make an individual decision to commit to suicidal jihad. This is important because the recruitment of terrorists today tends to use appeals to individual responsibility for upholding Islam, and is ideally suited for the internet age where individuals not living in a Muslim land—perhaps sitting alone in their apartment in Hamburg or Rotterdam or Falls Church looking for meaning in their lives on the internet—make an individual decision to commit to suicidal jihad."

Although terrorism is a possible byproduct of the "bad" blocks of information, a similar situation can occur in healthcare as well. In certain societies, people may consider an Internet post as definitive when considering medical advice, while the advice could be "bad" blocks of information. As a side note, I am not suggesting all Muslims are terrorists. Rather, I have many Muslim friends, value their friendship and values, and know many strongly disagree with terrorism.

In summary, I agree the Internet could be a valuable tool for reducing poverty and increasing the average knowledge of the World's population, but we need to properly review and educate newcomers to the dangers as well! As we know, we haven't successfully accomplished this task ourselves, but many are trying! For example, the Food and Drug Administration is creating "Partnerships" with online health sites and providing valuable information for consumers.
Committee on International Relations Hearing. Is there a Clash of Civilizations? Islam, Democracy, and US-Middle East and Central Asia Policy. US House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs[online]. 2006. Available from: From a Google Search.
Huntington, S. P. The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs[online]. 1993. Available from: Wikipedia.org.

Diary of a survivor in Haiti: Part I

Comment on Carine Exantus:
Diary of a survivor in Haiti: Part I

• http://www.conversationsforabetterworld.com/2010/03/diary-of-a-survivor-in-haiti-part-i/comment-page-1/#comment-2387

Hello,

First, I hope you are having a nice day. If not, I hope things get better soon!

Next, thanks for sharing your amazing story. Often, we people of the World, especially the developed world, are ignorant of other’s struggles.

If you don’t know already, you are a very special person, and your English is excellent!

By the way, one way you can collect water is through the use of a container or dirt hole, “fresh vegetation” , plastic, and the sun. Over time, the sun will evaporate the water, which will condense on the plastic. If you place a cup in the center of the “hole”, which is surrounded by vegetation, and create an inverted cone, “tent”, the water will collect in the cup. A small quantity, but, as long as the vegetation is clean from chemicals, a quantity of good drinking water.

Also, in lower humidity environments, one can use a wicking material, some locations actually use “hay bails”, and a fan. The fan will cause evaporation, which causes evaporative cooling effects, and will reduce the temperature of the forced air. In closed environments, this could reduce the internal temperature significantly! Be careful, certain bacteria will grow but you can search for these on the internet and use suggested methods of control. The key is a material that will allow sufficient wicking to allow continuous evaporative cooling.

• Legionaries disease is one possible complication of this type of cooling, so be careful.
∆ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/legionnaires-disease/DS00853/DSECTION=causes

From The National Academies Press:
§Choffnes, Eileen R.; Mack, Alison. Global Issues in Water, Sanitation, and Health: Workshop Summary (Institute of Medicine Forum on Microbial Threats). National Academies Press[online].2009. pp. 328 pages. Available from: National Academies Press, USA. ISBN: 0-309-13873-6.

∆ Page 161: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/picrender.fcgi?book=napp&part=nap12658&blobname=&blobtype=pdf

Have a nice day!

Chris Harding

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